Tuesday, June 17, 2008

Index Skip, Full, Fast Full Index, Index Joins Bitmap Indexes Scan

A)Index Skip Scan
----------------------------------------

As the name suggest index skip scan does not scan complete index. But it scan of the subindexes.

Index skip scan lets a composite index be split logically into smaller subindexes. In skip scanning, the initial column of the composite index is not specified in the query. In other words, it is skipped.

The number of logical subindexes is determined by the number of distinct values in the initial column. Skip scanning is advantageous if there are few distinct values in the leading column of the composite index and many distinct values in the nonleading key of the index.

Suppose if I make a make a composite index with two columns sex and id. The leading column sex contains only two distinct columns. Now if I query with non-leading column that is with id column then index skip scan will be used.

Example:
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SQL> create table test_skip_scan (sex varchar2(1), id number, address varchar2(20));
Table created.

SQL> create index test_skip_scan_I on test_skip_scan(sex,id);

Index created.

SQL> begin
for i in 1 .. 10000
loop
insert into test_skip_scan values(decode(remainder(abs(round(dbms_random.value(2,20),0)),2),0,'M','F'),i,null);
end loop;
end;
/

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> analyze table test_skip_scan estimate statistics;
Table analyzed.

SQL> select * from test_skip_scan where id=1;


Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 2410156502

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id | Operation | Name | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 1 | 9 | 4 (0)| 00:00:01 |
| 1 | TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID| TEST_SKIP_SCAN | 1 | 9 | 4 (0)| 00:00:01 |
|* 2 | INDEX SKIP SCAN | TEST_SKIP_SCAN_I | 1 | | 3 (0)| 00:00:01 |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

2 - access("ID"=1)
filter("ID"=1)

B)Index Fast Full Scan
---------------------------------------

Fast full index scans are an alternative to a full table scan when the index contains all the columns that are needed for the query, and at least one column in the index key has the NOT NULL constraint.

A fast full scan accesses the data in the index itself, without accessing the table.

It cannot be used to eliminate a sort operation, because the data is not ordered by the index key.

It reads the entire index using multiblock reads, unlike a full index scan, and can be parallelized.

Fast full index scans cannot be performed against bitmap indexes.

You can specify fast full index scans with the initialization parameter OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE or the INDEX_FFS hint.

Example:
-----------------
SQL> select /*+INDEX_FFS(test_skip_scan)*/ sex,id from test_skip_scan;


10000 rows selected.


Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 4280781105

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id | Operation | Name | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 10000 | 40000 | 7 (0)| 00:00:01 |
| 1 | INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| TEST_SKIP_SCAN_I | 10000 | 40000 | 7 (0)| 00:00:01 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


C)Index Joins
-------------------------

An index join is a hash join of several indexes that together contain all the table columns that are referenced in the query. If an index join is used, then no table access is needed, because all the relevant column values can be retrieved from the indexes. An index join cannot be used to eliminate a sort operation.

You can specify an index join with the INDEX_JOIN hint. For more information on the INDEX_JOIN hint.

SQL> select sex,id from test_skip_scan where id in (select col1 from test_tab);


1000 rows selected.


Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1059662925

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id | Operation | Name | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 999 | 6993 | 9 (12)| 00:00:01 |
|* 1 | HASH JOIN RIGHT SEMI | | 999 | 6993 | 9 (12)| 00:00:01 |
| 2 | INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| TEST_TAB_I | 1000 | 3000 | 2 (0)| 00:00:01 |
| 3 | TABLE ACCESS FULL | TEST_SKIP_SCAN | 10000 | 40000 | 6 (0)| 00:00:01 |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

1 - access("ID"="COL1")


D)Bitmap Indexes
-----------------------------------

A bitmap join uses a bitmap for key values and a mapping function that converts each bit position to a rowid. Bitmaps can efficiently merge indexes that correspond to several conditions in a WHERE clause, using Boolean operations to resolve AND and OR conditions.

Bitmap indexes and bitmap join indexes are available only if you have purchased the Oracle Enterprise Edition.

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